Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Petunia inflata
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
Peinf101Ctg13084213g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Ctg13096502g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Ctg13247756g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Ctg13256536g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Ctg13312770g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Ctg13630309g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g10002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g11001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g11002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g11003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g11004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g12001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00015g12006.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00020g00008.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00032g23003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00049g14007.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00049g16020.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00052g04002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00052g06028.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00062g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00071g10004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00120g14032.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00175g11021.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00186g00004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00208g00013.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00224g11014.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00255g11027.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00258g01007.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00264g04030.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00280g02001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00286g04004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00345g02002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00381g24002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00395g06011.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00395g06012.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00395g06068.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00400g01006.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00453g01011.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00500g01048.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00527g08008.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00557g01001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00578g01004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00578g02001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00590g33005.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00590g35001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00590g35003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00590g43005.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00637g07003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00650g07003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00650g28013.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00650g29061.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00653g06004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00731g00010.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00731g01013.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00753g01001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00755g05002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00796g03006.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00889g04005.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00909g16001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00932g02001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00951g07003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00972g01004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf00975g01012.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01005g00003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01083g00010.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01142g03003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01164g01001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01168g03005.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01168g03006.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01201g00004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01341g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01556g07007.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01556g10041.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01674g02007.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01775g02020.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf01997g03008.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02070g00009.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02263g04007.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02360g01006.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02501g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02501g00003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02501g00004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02501g00013.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02602g01005.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02714g01010.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf02974g03004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03074g00007.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03120g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03120g00003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03120g00014.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03120g01001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03120g01002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03120g01003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03120g01004.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf03525g01039.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf04072g01027.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf04508g00003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf04920g00003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf05168g00003.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf05410g00029.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf08351g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf09562g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf09753g00002.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf09975g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
Peinf101Scf15421g00001.1M-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513